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I wrote this in 2008 when this website was first set up and I was in my early days of researching this policy. In 2022, it seems little has changed. Policy is still trying to use mass surveillance to enforce against users. The arguments are similar. The difference is the scale.

Way back in 2008, the French government brought in a law for measures to enforce copyright, which was officially called the Creation and Internet law, but colloquially referred to as the Hadopi law ( loi Hadopi), and which was dubbed "3 strikes and you're out!" The idea was that warnings would be sent to thousands of users accused of copyright infringement (delivered by ISPs to their customers on behalf of the copyright owners) and penalties would include termination of Internet access. The proposals were first put forward by the 'Mission Olivennes', and commission headed by Denis Olivennes, former head of the French retail chain called the Fnac. The law passed through the French Parliament in 2009.

The Hadop was actually a government body charged with supervising the law. It was mandating changes to computer security software which effectively entail mass surveillance of Internet users. Those behind the measures were entertainment and music companies who own large libraries of copyright material. They sought to use online surveillance to look for users alleged to be downloading files without payment or permission.

My paper The French law on Creation and Internet - using contract law to squash file-sharing is available here.

If you like the articles in this section and you are interested in copyright enforcement policy and what happened to the Hadopi law, you may like my books A Copyright Masquerade: How Corporate Lobbying Threatens Online Freedoms and The Copyright Enforcement Enigma - Internet Politics and the 'Telecoms Package'

You may also like my book The Closing of the Net which positions the story of the Hadopi law in the wider policy context.


Government certified security software: the French government's Hadopi wants to spy on everything on your computer, every time you log on, otherwise you cannot defend yourself against breach of copyright allegations. How far does this breach our right to privacy or freedom of expression?

Confidential details of a French government consultation on how to secure Internet access for 3-strikes/graduated response measures, have leaked. The consultation is run by the Hadopi, the new public authority set up to oversee the French government's graduated response / 3-strikes law for copyright enforcement. The measures target peer-to-peer file-sharing in particular.

Although the consultation is supposed to be public, the details of the specification that Hadopi is requiring were kept secret. The leak - first reported by the French online technology magazine Numerama.com - is significant because it reveals a proposal for surveillance on Internet users' own computers. The Hadopi is consulting on

Read more: Hadopi's secret 3-strikes security spec leaked

Will a new law for ‘national security'  herald the introduction of Internet filtering in France?


Don't be fooled by the cute name - the LOPPSI (Loi d'Orientation et de Programmation pour la Sécurité Intérieure)  is a new French law for national security, which, among other things, seeks to introduce  filtering of the  Internet. The law has been debated this week in the French Parliament ( Assemblée Générale).  It will  initially require ISPs to block access to websites on a government-compiled list  for the  specific purpose of 'protecting children', but many commentators believe that the government plan to implement it more widely. 

 The critical provision in the LOPPSI was Article 4, which seeks to permit the blocking of websites deemed to contain child pornography. The Article has provoked

Read more: French LOPPSI law threatens net filtering

Former MEP Jacques Toubon is now on a French government committee looking at new business models for creative content on the Internet. Their first recommendation is a tax to hit at Google - and no doubt, eBay. But it will also hit at those big media companies which are still trying to make a commercial business out of their web properties.


Not content with putting the copyright amendments in the EU Telecoms Package, now Jacques Toubon wants to increase the squeeze on the Internet with a tax on online advertising. The tax is

Read more: Toubon strikes again - France to tax Google


Iptegrity moves on!

May 2024: Iptegrity is being re-developed to upgrade the Joomla software.

Please bear with us until the new site is ready.

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About Iptegrity

Iptegrity.com is the website of Dr Monica Horten. I am an  independent policy advisor: online safety, technology and human rights. In April 2024, I was appointed as an independent expert on the Council of Europe Committee of Experts on online safety and empowerment of content creators and users. I am a published author, and post-doctoral scholar. I hold a PhD from the University of Westminster, and a DipM from the Chartered Institute of Marketing. I cover the UK and EU. I'm a former tech journalist, and an experienced panelist and Chair. My media credits include the BBC, iNews, Times, Guardian and Politico.

Iptegrity.com is made available free of charge for non-commercial use. Please link back and attribute Dr Monica Horten.  Contact me to use any of my content for commercial purposes.  

The politics of copyright

A Copyright Masquerade - How corporate lobbying threatens online freedoms

'timely and provocative' Entertainment Law Review